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Best Nootropics To Enhance Brain Health

Nootropics are an exciting category of “smart drugs” with major potential to impact brain power and performance. This article will review some of their common benefits, and give examples of how some nootropics work. Although there is more research to be done on nootropics’ long term effects, they have the potential to play a role in both exercise and daily life.


What are Nootropics?

Nootropics are a class of supplements that can be thought of as brain enhancers. The term “nootropic” itself comes from the Greek words nous which means “mind”. This class of supplements has a wide range of potential benefits, from increased cognition, attention, comprehension, and memory to support better intelligence.1 They may also have a protective effect on the brain against aging and injury.1

Nootropics range from simple nutrients like vitamins and amino acids, commonly known natural substances like ginkgo biloba, to prescription medications. Their mechanisms of action and side effects vary widely. Although many compounds may fall under the category of potential nootropics, there are only a few that have shown efficacy through extensive research over time.2 Nootropic supplements continue to be a fascinating topic of study by many scientists and pharmaceutical companies.

How Do Nootropics Work?

Just like the wide range of types of nootropic supplements, the way they influence brain power varies greatly. Some have an effect on dopamine (the “feel good” hormone) and other transmitters in the brain, others have an anti-inflammatory protective effect.3 The class of nootropics is like a large umbrella, with many types of brain supplements and potential benefits falling underneath.


Best Uses of Nootropic Supplements

Although many nootropics impact multiple areas of cognition and brain health, the following categories are the most common reasons for taking brain boosting supplements.1 Because some nootropics work differently, some people prefer to “stack” their effects by taking more than one supplement at a time. Here are the most common reasons for using nootropic supplements:


i) Memory & Focus

Nootropic supplements for memory and focus are widely used, from college students to those wanting to prevent cognitive decline due to aging. While prescription amphetamines like Adderall change brain chemistry to increase attention, energy, and focus, they are designed for people with ADHD but widely abused without a prescription.4

Conversely, something as simple as Vitamin D (which we can obtain from the sun, food, or a simple multivitamin) has been shown to be clinically low in patients with declining cognitive function.5

Ginkgo biloba is one commonly known supplement with extensive research related to improved memory. It is thought to work by increasing blood flow to the brain, similarly to amphetamines. Typically sold in the form of ginkgo extract, this plant-based supplement has been widely studied for its potential to improve memory and mental processes, with few side effects.6

ii) Anxiety & Depression

Anxiety and depression are common diagnoses with many prescription and natural treatments available on the market today. St. John’s Wort has a known history of being prescribed to treat depression, but could also show promise with improving memory.1

Ginseng has been used as a traditional herbal medicine with multiple benefits for thousands of years. Many would say the primarily nootropic benefit of ginseng is treatment and prevention of major depression and anxiety.7 It can also boost energy and protect the brain from neurodegenerative diseases.7 Research shows that there are more than five different mechanisms of interaction between the brain and ginseng which  also has cognitive enhancing properties.7

Adaptogens are a category of herbs that work by impacting hormones and your body’s physiologic response to stress. They are typically available in both supplement and team forms. Rhodiola rosea is an adaptogen commonly used for several nootropic benefits, most of all for anxiety and depression.8 Rhodiola has been shown particularly useful in mediating the short-term impact of stress, or the “fight-or-flight” response.8


iii) Energy

Creatine is a commonly used ergogenic aid to improve power and short-term bursts of energy, but has also been shown to have a beneficial effect on the brain. Creatine supplementation has shown positive impacts on both memory and intelligence, which may work by increasing energy supply to the brain and acting as an antioxidant.9

Green tea has been widely used for years as a metabolism booster, but may show nootropic effects due to its high L-Theanine amino acid content. L-Theanine, in particular, may improve brain function through its strong anti-oxidant like properties, and is sometimes marketed as a nootropic supplement itself.10  While L-Theanine is promising, it is important to keep in mind that the beneficial effects of green tea are potentially due a combination of bioactive components rather than just L-Theanine alone.


iv) Brain Health

Omega-3 fatty acids are a classic example of a brain boosting supplement. These heart healthy fats have many benefits to the body, but particularly they protect the brain’s neurons, reduce inflammation, and improve brain-cell function.11 Some studies even show an impact of Omega-3s on brain recovery, which can potentially help with prevention of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease.11

Racetams are a class of synthetically produced nootropic supplements aimed at boosting brain health and enhancing the learning process. Some of the most popular on the market are piracetam, aniracetam, and nefiracetam. There are many derivatives that work in various ways to impact memory, motivation, and attention.3 Research on this class of brain supplements shows the most promise for those with neurodegenerative disorders or injuries, and less in healthy individuals, although more research is needed.12

Safety of Nootropic Supplements

Nootropics are a new class of supplements and are constantly being researched. Even though plant based supplements like ginkgo and ginseng are natural, there is very limited control over the purity and effectiveness of dietary supplements.13 Because over the counter supplements can interact with other medications you may be taking or impact preexisting health conditions,  it is best to speak with your doctor before taking any new substances.


Top Nootropic Side Effects to be Aware of

Caffeine and nicotine could be considered nootropic agents for the boost in energy and blood flow they provide to the brain, but they also have clear side effects and health impacts in large and repeated doses– something to consider when taking any supplement, especially those without extensive research.14

Although some nootropics show benefits to those with cognitive diseases like Alzheimer’s, they may not have an impact on healthy individuals. Furthermore, those with a history of mental illness or substance use disorders may experience worsening symptoms when taking certain nootropics2, which should be monitored.


Take Home Message

One clear method for improving brain health and mood is regular exercise. Exercise’s many benefits extend beyond muscle tone and weight loss – it can also increase cognition and protect the brain and body as we age.15 Nootropics are an exciting new class of supplements with a wide range of potential brain health benefits.

While nootropics (and other over the counter medications) are still being researched they may be effective for some individuals. Nootropic stacking is popular to try to boost brain health, but it may also increase the potential for negative side effects. It is best to speak with your doctor before consuming any medication.

Discover more about THE Neuro Range here…


THE Neuro Range: Introducing THE Neuro Engage and THE Neuro Restore

Enhance your performance with all new THE Neuros

2019-01-30 15:20:21By Ian Roden

Our articles should be used for informational and educational purposes only and are not intended to be taken as medical advice. If you’re concerned, consult a health professional before taking dietary supplements or introducing any major changes to your diet.

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  2. Nootropics: Emergents drugs associated with new clinical challenges. Saiz Garcia H, Montes Reula L, Portilla Fernandez A, Pereira Sanchez V, Olmo Loze N, Mancha Heredero E, Rosero Enriquez AS, Martinez Parreno ME. S877-S878, s.l. : European Pyschiatry, 2017, Vol. 41.
  3. Establishing Natural Nootropics: Recent Molecular Enhancement Influenced by Natural Nootropic. Suliman NA, Taib CNM, Moklas MAM, Adenan MI, Beharuldin MTH, Basir R. 4391375, s.l. : Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2016, Vol. August 30.
  4. The congition-enhancing effects of psychostimulants involve direct action in the prefrontal cortex. Spencer RC, Devilbiss DM, Berridge CW. 1;77(11):940-50, s.l. : Biological Psychiatry, 2015, Vol. June.
  5. The association between vitamin D and cognition: a systematic review. van der Schaft J, Koek HL, Dijkstra E, Verhaar HJ, van der Schouw YT, Emmelot-Vonk MH. 12(4):1013-23, s.l. : Ageing Research Reviews, 2013, Vol. Sept.
  6. Specific memory effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in middle-aged healthy volunteers. R, Kaschel. s.l. : Phytomedicine, 2011, Vols. Nov 15;18(14):1202-7.
  7. Protective effects of ginseng on neurological disorders. Ong W-Y, Farooqui T, Koh H-L, Farooqui AA, Ling E-A. s.l. : Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 2015, Vol. July 16.
  8. Ducharme, Jamie. What Are Adaptogens and Why are People Taking Them? Time. 2018, Vol. February 28.
  9. Rae, C. D., & Bröer, S. (2015). Creatine as a booster for human brain function. How might it work?. Neurochemistry international, 89, 249-259.
  10. The beneficial health effects of green tea aminoa acid L-theanine in animal models: Promises and prospects for human trials. Williams J, Sergi D, McKune A, Georgousopoulou E, Mellor D, Naumovski N. s.l. : Phytotherapy Research, 2019, Vol. January.
  11. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and brain health: Preclinical evidence for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. Kerdiles O, Laye S, Calon F. Part B, 203-213, s.l. : Trends in Food Science & Technology, 2017, Vol. 69.
  12. Piracetam and piracetam-like drugs: from basic science to novel clinical applications to CNS disorders. Malykh AG, Sadaie MR. s.l. : Drugs, 2010, Vols. 70(3):287-312.
  13. Administration, US Food and Drug. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know. US Food and Drug Administration. [Online] 11 29, 2017. [Cited: 1 24, 2019.] https://www.fda.gov/Food/DietarySupplements/UsingDietarySupplements/ucm109760.htm.
  14. Caffeine: cognitive and physical performance enhancer or psychoactive drug? Cappelletti S, Piacentino D, Sani G, Aromatario M. s.l. : Current Neuropharmacology, 2015, Vols. 13(1):71-88.
  15. Adaptive Capacity: An Evolutionary Neuroscience Model Linking Exercise, Cognition, and Brain Health. Raichlen DA, Alexander GE. 7, s.l. : Trends in Neurosciences, 2017, Vol. 40.

Claire Muszalski

Claire Muszalski

Writer and expert

Claire is a Registered Dietitian through the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and a board-certified Health and Wellness Coach through the International Consortium for Health and Wellness Coaching. She has a Bachelor of Science in Biology and a Master’s degree in Clinical Dietetics and Nutrition from the University of Pittsburgh.

Talking and writing about food and fitness is at the heart of Claire’s ethos as she loves to use her experience to help others meet their health and wellness goals.

Claire is also a certified indoor cycling instructor and loves the mental and physical boost she gets from regular runs and yoga classes. When she’s not keeping fit herself, she’s cheering on her hometown’s sports teams in Pittsburgh, or cooking for her family in the kitchen.

Find out more about Claire’s experience here.

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